Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Ethics, Morals, or Values Essay

My moral judgment was put to an extreme test just a single time before. In any case, when it occurred, it totally overpowered me that I would never be sure up to this point whether I settled on the correct choice. It included my 90-year-old incredible auntie whom I cherished beyond all doubt and who had no other living relative other than me. She was hurried to the emergency clinic in an insensible condition, no circulatory strain perusing, and no heartbeat. She was later determined to have sepsis auxiliary to disease from her bed injuries in the wake of being confined to bed for over a year. She was at last moved to a private stay with a circulatory strain perusing of 60/40 and a somewhat feeble heartbeat yet steady, as indicated by her going to doctor, thinking about the conditions. In any case, days and weeks after the fact, her condition didn't improve. She was as yet out cold, and anti-microbials didn't appear to be producing any results. Afterward, she created pneumonia. I was educated by the medical clinic staff that it was normal in her circumstance. All things considered, they let me know, she was a debilitated, 90-year-elderly person in extreme lethargies. One day her primary care physician conversed with me about her condition. He educated me that there was nothing amiss with her heart †she had a sound heart. What stressed him, he stated, were her lungs since they were prepared to crumple. The second her lungs breakdown, my auntie would quickly quit breathing and bite the dust regardless of a sound heart. There was just a single thing they could do on the off chance that I needed all her on breathing and remain alive †in fact alive, at any rate. They could embed a breathing cylinder that would contact her lungs and siphon air into her utilizing a breathing pack. In any case, he needed me to comprehend that the technique would be excruciating for my auntie †an agonizing system that would not enable my auntie to recuperate cognizance. Above all, he needed to get my agree to play out the system on my auntie when the need emerged. I was unable to answer him immediately. I recognized what he was asking me. I heard a few medical attendants discussing â€Å"heroics† regarding biting the dust patients. My aunt’s specialist needed to know whether I would request that he compose the words â€Å"no heroics† on my aunt’s card with the goal that they could permit her to bite the dust †I could leave her to kick the bucket †when her lungs fallen. I was the closest relative. Since my auntie could no longer choose for herself, the choice was up to me. I was gazing at willful extermination in the face! I inquired as to whether I could offer him my response the next day. He said truly, however reminded me not to postpone or it may be past the point of no return. I went through the entire night pondering it †posing myself a few inquiries. What might my auntie have needed me to do? My auntie was a dedicated Catholic. Would she need me to choose as one? The next morning I disclosed to her primary care physician: â€Å"Please thoroughly take care of her! †

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Parent Child Relationship Essay Example for Free

Parent Child Relationship Essay Dynamic This paper is tied in with demonstrating your youngsters that you love them by advancing limits. It will clarify what kids truly need their folks know and comprehend. This paper likewise gets down to the rudiments of how to be an encouraging sign in this dim world. Tell the best way to enable our kids to move through alarming circumstances by giving them positive qualities to depend on. Love is the repeating theme which ties us together and without adoration, limits and order would not succeed the manner in which it is intended to. This paper takes a gander at various approaches to be dynamic at home, how to have a delight filled home, and how to show the ones who mean the most to you how you feel. It additionally shows how feelings can influence how we parent. It takes us on an excursion through our adolescence, such a large number of our child rearing strategies originate from how we were parented whether it was positive or negative it is the thing that we put together our child rearing with respect to. How Parents can Better Love Understand Their Kids In this paper we will talk about various strategies and techniques rehearsed to make home the place of refuge it should be. A few hints are given on the most proficient method to carry fun and comprehension into the home. Family White (1998) states, â€Å"if your family are the most notable individuals in your life†¦show them, make your family your priorityâ€strip away the non significant things that remove time from them (p. 5). Children simply need to be adored and appreciated. They have to feel like they have a place some place and are extraordinary. Guardians need to back off and invest energy with their kids. We should be acceptable good examples for our own children. We have to have a ton of fun families to show the children there is a whole other world to their music and TV, they can make some great memories with the family (p. 37-41). Discussion about objective setting as a family, â€Å"everyone has a supposition so everybody is remembered for trying out thoughts of they might want to see the family achieve, positive remarks as it were. At that point you have to explain and compose your settled upon objectives, and record approaches to achieve every objective. You should assign a particular time to reflect and rethink your endeavors as a family† (White, 1998, p. 41-42). White (1998) shows a listening method which was educated to him. â€Å"You start by advising the individual you will pose three inquiries and you will rehash them a few times, however they have to give an alternate reaction each time. The objective is to get them to find the arrangement and work toward applying it (p. 60-61). We should be aware of how we see things every individual has their own view, and it may not coordinate your own view yet we have to acknowledge there is more than one approach to carry out a responsibility. Additionally, White (1998) addresses us about time and how we love the minutes with our friends and family, ensuring our children are sure secure in what their identity is will assist them with having the option to disapprove of specific things. We have to develop the children by concentrating on the positive and by telling them they are cherished (pp. 85-93). Not exclusively is it our duty to develop our youngsters, however we have to help them dreamhave vision, and assist them with getting to their dreamsdon’t be a fantasy smasher. We may not accept what they do yet we should be strong. The most effective method to be Positive â€Å"Your thinking legitimately influences your exhibition dispose of negative reasoning. â€Å"You are what you are, and where you are a direct result of what has gone into your mind† (Ziglar, 1989, pp. 18-20). Ziglar says, â€Å"When you change the information you change the yield. We have to quit being so negative â€if an assignment is too hard we state we can’t do it, we have to support our children and ourselves to push through the extreme occasions (p. 24). â€Å"A effective life begins with having a cherishing and stable relationship with our family. Your disposition influences your point of view; characteristics to make progress toward to have achievement in life are: reliability, cordiality, genuineness and a feeling of humor† (Ziglar, 1998, pp.41-42). Ziglar additionally stated, â€Å"A strong establishment for youngsters includes a strong good base† meaningyou need to try to do you say others should do. â€Å"You need to search for and anticipate great from your kids, quit taking a gander at the awful and negative things and search for the great and positive in them and they will bloom† (Ziglar, 1998, p. 51). Be explicit when you discover something great in your youngster, mention to them what it is actually and keep on lifting them up. Being Available as an Emotion Coach As per Gottman (1997), We have to enable our children to manage their feelings by being their feeling mentors and we do that with five stages 1) by monitoring their feeling, 2) perceive the feeling as a period for closeness and instructing, 3) hear them out and approve their sentiments, 4) help name the feeling with words and 5) set cutoff points while discovering approaches to take care of the issue (p.24). In sync one, the attention is on perceiving when you are feeling a feeling, you can distinguish the sentiments, and you can be touchy to feelings in others (p. 76). Stage two, when guardians can utilize a negative encounter to deliver holding with their kids it constructs closeness and it shows them how to manage their sentiments (p.93). During stage three, two things happen, listening sympathetically and approving the child’s emotions. Gottman recommends this might be the most significant advance in feeling training! Not exclusively are you tuning in with your ears, however you are utilizing your eyes to search for physical affirmation of the child’s feelings. Guardians additionally utilize their creative mind to see things from the child’s point of view. They rehash back what they hear to enable the youngster to put words to their feelings. Ultimately, they utilize their most valuable endowment of heart to feel what their youngster is feeling (p. 94). Stage four is putting words to their feelings. Studies have indicated that marking feelings soothingly affects the sensory system, supporting the youngster to ricochet back faster from upsetting occurrences (pp. 99-100). The last advance is setting cutoff points and critical thinking. This progression involves understanding the child’s sentiments just as talking about what is good and bad conduct, and afterward concocting elective approaches to deal with their feelings (p. 101). For the most part talking, as indicated by Gottman (1997), Kids who have guardians that training â€Å"emotion coaching† have better physical wellbeing and score higher in scholastics. They appear to coexist better with others and have less conduct issues. Additionally noticed, these kids are less inclined to act viciously and appear to encounter less negative sentiments and progressively positive ones, and are viewed as more advantageous on an enthusiastic level (p. 25). â€Å"There are results that show when guardians use feeling instructing with their children; there are buffering impacts on kids whose families are experiencing issues and additionally separate. Another find from look into shows that fathers who join feeling instructing in child rearing have an incredibly positive effect on their children’s enthusiastic development† (Gottman, 1997, p. 26). There are four kinds of child rearing styles; contingent upon your style as a parent the impacts can be adverse to the child’s prosperity. The styles are being pretentious, objecting, free enterprise, and the feeling mentor. In the pompous style, the child’s emotions are thought of as not significant or minor. The impact on the youngster is that the individual in question discovers that their emotions aren't right or not substantial. They feel that something isn't right with them as an individual as a result of how they feel (p. 50). The opposing style, judges and scrutinizes the child’s enthusiastic articulation just as view feelings as shortcoming. The impact on the kid is that the person discovers that their sentiments aren't right or not legitimate. They feel that something isn't right with them as an individual on account of how they feel (p. 51). The free enterprise style, doesn't show the kid feelings, and offers little direction on conduct. The impact on the kid is the individual doesn't figure out how to control their feelings and they experience difficulty making companions and coexisting with others (pp. 51-52). The feeling mentor style, doesn't feel that they need to fix each issue for the kid and they regard the child’s feelings. The impact on the kid is the individual in question can confide in their sentiments, take care of issues, and coexist well with others (p. 52). Guardians need to take as much time as is needed with their youngsters, become more acquainted with them and comprehend their perspective. By figuring out how to be sympathetic audience members, guardians can enable their youngsters to figure out how to issue settle for themselves, empower their kid to relieve themselves and become all the more balanced people. Demonstrating sympathy resembles indicating your youngster your heart. In the event that you can tell them that you see how they believe, they won’t feel down and they will feel certain that their folks care about them at the center of their feelings. How Love Heals In understanding the dynamic of parent and kid Hendrix Hunt (1997) utilize an allegory portraying the relationship as â€Å"a embroidery of life, which means they are woven together by the strings and lines of their collaborations with one another† (p. 7). They utilize this to depict the fragile bond between the parent and youngster. If not cautious you can tear and harm that bond. â€Å"These tears happen when you are not focusing on the occasion, or when you are encountering passionate torment yourself† (Hendrix Hunt, 1997, p. 8). The focal point of the message given by Hendrix Hunt (1997) is on being cognizant in your child rearing. This implies â€Å"you are to address the issues of your kid by giving security, backing and structure as your kid travels through each phase of development† (p. 38). Hendrix Hunt (1997) referenced â€Å"most guardians are oblivious, however they are still acceptable, kind, mindful and submitted individuals. They have been injured and just ha

Friday, August 21, 2020

Bananafish Essays (713 words) - A Perfect Day For Bananafish

Bananafish Exactly for what reason did Seymour execute himself Picture strolling into a lodging and finding a man dead on a bed. After looking into it further it becomes clear that he has as far as anyone knows ended his own existence with the firearm that lay next to him. In conversing with his better half who was sleeping on the bed close to him when this episode happened, it is found out that he just strolled in the entryway and shot himself late the earlier night. Out of the numerous inquiries that could be posed from this story, I accept that it is most likely critical to consider why the principle character, Seymour Glass, chose to end it all. What I accept to be the purpose behind Seymour's self destruction has two fundamental parts: the otherworldly corruption of his general surroundings, and his battle with his own profound weaknesses. The profound issue of the outside world is generally a matter of material avarice, particularly in the west, and realism. Then again, his own otherworldly issue is progressively a matter of scholarly voracity and genuine mysticism. In tending to the self destruction, the distinction ought to be recognized the See More Glass that we see through little Sybil's eyes, and the Seymour Glass that we see through the eyes of the grown-up world. Despite the fact that these two characters are in principle a similar man, they are somewhat unique somehow or another. You could likewise say that they are the same character in various phases of advancement. Whatever the case might be, the explanations behind the self destruction move somewhat in accentuation as the character changes. A Perfect Day for Bananafish endeavors to represent that the bananas in See More Glass' story speak to everything which are taken in along the way to adulthood. Whenever sought after with an excess of enthusiasm, these bananas can forestall profound turn of events what's more, lead to a more noteworthy materialistic turn of events. See-More has understood that he can't dispose of enough bananas to gain any further profound ground in this life, along these lines, instead of sit around idly, he ends it all. This is marginally evident when he is taking the lift back up to his room the evening of the self destruction. His obsession upon his feet, which don't look like the untainted feet that he wants to have, and the lady in the lift's contempt towards Seymour's blaming her for gazing at his feet, drive him to hate the grown-up world considerably more. He is the bananafish who can't get away from the gap and accomplish the mysticism and honest attributes that he so wants. As he would like to think, he accepts that this self destruction will give him the possibility that he needs and needs: to start from the very beginning once more. The counter realism of the story should likewise must be considered in discussing the self destruction. Salinger, maybe still somewhat hesitant in 1948 to desert his own enemy of realism that appears to me to be an early distraction of his, for basic realism and hostile to mysticism, leaves a great part of the previous dissipated all through the story. Seymour's spouse, Muriel's name the two looks and seems like the word ?material?. This might represent that she, similar to her mom, is shallow, design cognizant, and reluctant to learn German so as to peruse fragile, world-exhausted artists like Rilke. Obliterating Seymour considerably more is Sybil's reference to the voracious tigers in Little Black Sambo and her association with Eliot's Wasteland. This recommends even this young lady has started to build up an issue with material obsession and profound disregard. These strains of hostile to realism in the story muddle the self destruction since they recommend that Seymour is quitting a world that is excessively tangibly slanted for him, rather than one in which he himself is answerable for his own misery and profound debasement. The two situations, Seymour's own scholarly avarice alongside the general material ravenousness by which he is certain, genuinely add to his self destruction. The explanations behind Seymour's self destruction are in this manner demonstrated to be tangled in Bananafish, with a few unique components becoming an integral factor. The understanding of Seymour got from the story is that he is pained by his own profound inadequacies (the consequence of an excessive amount of scholarly fortune) as much as by the deficiencies of the individuals and the world around him. These components at last lead to

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Why College Athletes should be paid - Free Essay Example

As the end of high school approaches, some student- athletes have the option to play a sport in college. One question they may ask themselves would be, Is it worth it to play a sport in college?, considering all the time put into the sport while having to maintain good grades. You must be a very hard-working person to be a college athlete as it is basically a full-time job jumping between the classroom, field/court, weight room, and watching film. Imagine you are a college athlete; your daily routine would consist of waking up early most days for practice. After the morning practice, you attend classes towards earning your college degree. Then, since you frequently miss class and are struggling to keep your grades up, you have a tutoring session. Lastly, to finish your day off, you have more practice which will likely end late. Athletes have to follow this routine the whole school year. This routine does not include any extra-curricular or social activities. With all the athletes time going towards their sports and studies, they lack time to work a job to have extra spending money. There are several reasons supporting why college athletes should be paid. One is the athletes do not have enough time to hold a steady job because they are constantly practicing or playing the sport, they are involved in. College is expensive, and many athletes are not given scholarships to help pay for tuition, room and board, or books. This can lead to an increasing amount of debt because they must borrow money to pay for college. Many people believe athletes should get paid for their hard work, while others believe that it would ruin the integrity of college sports if athletes were paid. When the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) was founded by President Roosevelt in 1906, there was a commitment that a salary would not be provided to the student-athletes who took part in its athletic organization. This was based on the idea that college athletes should be considered amateurs, not professionals. In contrast, todayrs lucrative television contracts have become the driving revenue force behind an institutionrs ability to thrive in college athletics. Recently, for example, numerous universities have changed their athletic conference affiliation because of increased financial incentives. According to, college athletes spend over 30 hours on average a week just in practice while some reported they spent over 40 hours (1). But college athletes are not required to simply play sports 40 hours a week. Their schedule also includes a full-time college schedule that they must maintain if they want to stay in the school and continue playing college sports. For example, if a student has 10 hours of class each week and puts in the recommended four hours of study for each hour of class, then athletes spend 50 hours each week studying and attending mandatory classes and study halls. This means that college athletes have to work 90 hours per week just to remain in school on their scholarship. This is the equivalent to working two full-time jobs with a side job on the weekends just to pay their bills (Anderson 1). The debate about whether college athletes should be paid, is not a new concept. Some people believe that a scholarship should be payment enough. After all, a scholarship can be easily worth $25,000 or more per year, plus a career after college that can be worth a million dollars over a lifetime. Additionally, student- athletes receive all kinds of perks while they are in college, like staying at fancy hotels, being seen on national tv, and all the notoriety that goes with being a star athlete. It is hard to put a price tag on all of that. But if you really take a look at the facts about scholarships, you might change your mind. Only about one out of every three student-athletes receive a scholarship. Most who receive scholarships find that they only pay for part of the expenses. With all the time and energy, they put into sports: college athletes should be considered employees rather than students because their first duty is to play sports for the university, ahead of obtaining an e ducation (Zepel and Staudohaur 1). After all, although the NCAA claims college athletes are just students, the NCAAs own tournament schedules require college athletes to miss classes for nationally televised games that bring in revenue. A college coaches job is to recruit players who they think have the talent to make them win. Many times, they persuade them to come to their school by offering them scholarships. The whole idea behind a scholarship is to lure the athlete into coming being a student and athlete at their college. Scholarships are nothing more than a recruitment tactic. Indeed, many times these scholarships pay for tuition, room and board, and books, but these athletes dont have money for other necessities. When providing a service, people normally get paid for the service, so college athletes should be paid for performing a service with their athletic abilities. They offer entertainment to millions of fans each year. Almost anyone who is involved with sports, whether it be watching them or playing them, has an opinion on whether college athletes should be paid. College sports make billions of dollars, so there is room for athletes to be paid in some way. The financial outlook for the NCAA is completely different than it was even 10 years ago. The NCAA basketball tournament generated $9 million per year in 1981, $215 million per year in 1997 and generates approximately $750 million per year now. Without the athletes, this revenue would not be possible, yet they are still unpaid. Even if scholarships would be considered pay, student-athletes are underpaid in proportion to what they generate for the college. For example, in professional football and basketball, for example, players are paid approximately one-half of the revenues generated (Should College Athletes Be Paid? 10). By no means should college athletes be paid as much as professional athletes, but they deserve a little incentive for all their hard work in their respective sport and in the classroom. Furthermore, the NCAA currently produces nearly $11 Billion in annual revenue from college sports more than the estimated total league revenues of both the National Basketball Association and the National Hockey League (Edelman 1). It does not seem rational that the NCAA, the colleges in the NCAA, and some coaches of the athletic program make a substantial amount of money, but the athletes do not see any of this money. In support of this look at the following statistics according Edelman, last year, the average salary for a BCS eligible football coach was $2.05 million, the average salary for a premier NCAA Division I mens basketball coach also exceeded $1 Million, and in 40 of the 50 U.S. states, the highest paid public official is currently the head coach of a state universityrs football or menrs basketball team (1). Athletes arguably do the most work out of any of these groups and are who draw in the fans, so it does not make sense that they do not receive any of the profit made from college athletics. College athletics is a billion- dollar industry and has been for a long time. Due to the increased ratings of college athletics, this figure will continue to rise. The athletes being recruited for college sports are bigger, faster and stronger than ever and will generate more money due to the number of fans who watch each week. College Universities generate so much revenue during the year that it is only fair to the players to receive part of that as compensation. College athletes should get paid based on the universityrs revenue from the sport and the apparel sales. It is very difficult to put a numeric value on exactly how much an athlete is worth to a college. A star quarterback will not only help sell tickets but will bring in plenty of merchandise sales as well. The NCCA prohibits the universities to sell a college football jersey with a players name on it, but they can sell the jersey with the players number on it, which is easily recognizable in local, and sometimes national markets. While the university can capitalize on the notoriety of its players; the players are not allowed to do this themselves. NCAA rules state that student-athletes are not allowed to use their college athletic abilities for promotional purposes or monetary gain. As stated by Anderson this means that a well-known athlete cannot charge money for the hours spent signing autographs, but the university is able to use the athlete to generate hundreds of thousands or even millions of dollars through sales and increased enrollment (Anderson 1). Also, important to note: in a 1989 survey of professional football players, 31 percent of the respondents admitted to having accepted illegal payments during their college careers, and 48 percent of the respondents said they knew of other athletes who took such payments during college (Porto 41). College athletes most likely would not feel the need to break the rules if they received compensation that assisted them to pay their bills. With these factors in mind, Division I football, and menrs basketball players do not merely play a sport of leisure. Rather, they are core members of their universityrs marketing team, as well as the labor force behind a lucrative secondary industry in hosting organized sporting events. Itrs also important to note that college student-athletes are not only a part of a sports team; they are a part of the college or universityrs advertising team. Success in college sports is also believed to improve the application rates and caliber of admitted students at certain universities. For example, consider: the Flutie effect is used to describe a surge in college admission following a big sports win. Itrs named for Boston College quarterback Doug Flutie; he won the Heisman Trophy in 1984, and the Collegers admissions rose significantly in subsequent years†though the extent of Flutiers impact has been largely refuted by BC officials since then(Martinez 1). Still, colleges and universiti es use their athletic success to promote their school and entice potential applicants. Student-athletes would be paid for this and all the additional benefits they provide for their schools. Lastly, a small salary would also teach student-athletes how to save. Think about the advantage, saving is an incredibly important skill that many young people dont take part in either because they do not earn enough money to create a savings account or because they do not understand the importance of saving (Anderson 1). Life skills are an important aspect of college and playing sports, why not use their athletic abilities to help them succeed further in these skills. In conclusion, almost anyone who is involved with sports, whether it be watching them or playing them, has an opinion on whether college athletes should be paid. Based on how the NCAA has evolved over time and the amount of income they generate, college athletes should get paid for the time that they put into their respective sports. The time that they dedicate to their sport is equivalent to the time someone puts into a full-time job, if not more. Only one- third of college athletes receive a scholarship, the majority of those are partial, and only one percent of all college athletes make it to the pros. Since most college athletes do not receive a full ride and do not go pro, colleges should pay the athlete as if their sport was their job to help them pay off college and other expenses.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Plato s Theory Of Morality - 1851 Words

I contend that Plato s theories on morality are persuaded by concerns he had about moral theory. Specifically, Plato rejects rationality as the boost of subjectively evaluated self-interest because, had he received such an account, his hypothesis of justice would be liable to reactions which he holds are lethal to the contractarian theory of justice. While detailing a hypothesis to stay inside ethical constraints in some cases disregards the groups of scientific theorizing, Plato maintains to avoid this mistake. Plato concurs that rationality requires self-intrigued activity. On the other hand, he recognizes the difference between perceived self-interest and real self-interest and contends that any evident clash in the middle of rationality and morality is essentially a contention between one s apparent self-interest and the prerequisites of justice. Seeking after of one s genuine self-interest never clashes with the requests of morality. Since, for Plato, it is more reasonable to seek after one s genuine, than one s evident, self-interest, rationality and morality do not conflict. It is rational to be moral. Plato rejects the contractarian reconciliation of morality with individual rationality fundamentally because the feelings that the contractarian conception accept that a person s intentions in being just are essentially based off of self-interest, while our idea of the just individual holds that to be really only one value for its own particular purpose. TheShow MoreRelatedHuman Nature : Good Or Evil1053 Words   |  5 Pagesincluding some economic ideologies, produce theories of human nature in order to establish fundamental human rights and to establish a more productive form of government. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

OedipusBeowulfFinalDraft Essay - 1667 Words

Edin Schneider AP English Literature Mr. Weeg 21 October 2014 Oedipus and Beowulf Compare and Contrast Essay Oedipus Rex and Beowulf are two entirely different works in terms of the cultures that they were written for. Oedipus Rex was written by the Greek playwright Sophocles in about 430 B.C., and Beowulf was written a few hundred years before 1000 C.E., when it was transcribed from the Anglo-Saxon language. Despite these obvious differences, the two works share identical archetypes. Not only do Oedipus Rex and Beowulf include evil monsters and tragic heroes in their contents, but very similar themes about mankind. An example of one of these themes is that mans efforts to meet the expectation set by their past victories prevents them†¦show more content†¦But truly, the prophecy that he is following is only one created by himself. This belief that Beowulf clings to will eventually present big problems for him and his kingdom. When the events of Oedipus begin to unfold, and when Oedipus is slowly realizing that he has fulfilled the pr ophecy, he still maintains his pride. When Tiresias is trying to explain to Oedipus that he was, in fact, the killer of Laius, Oedipus disregards him, stating that he is merely spouting riddles(25). Tiresias rebuts, stating that Oedipus of all people, the one who bested the sphinx, would have no problem solving riddles. Oedipus cannot ignore this taunt, and allows Tiresias to continue, since he challenge[d] there [his] strongest point(25). Oedipus pride prevented him from listening to Tiresias, but it allowed him to continue listening to him at the same time. By acknowledging Oedipus feat of besting the sphinx, Tiresias was allowed to continue talking to Oedipus, which begs the question of whether or not Oedipus truly desired to hear the rest of Tiresias words. One thing is for certain, yet again. Oedipus; pride is preventing him from solving his problems. Closer to the end of the story, when Oedipus finds out that he was abandoned by his true mother and father and left in the wilde rness to die as an infant, his pride seemingly increases. His

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Justice as Fairness Entitlement Justice for Theory

Question: John Rawlss argument for Justice as fairness and Robert Nozicks argument for Entitlement justice for theory.' Answer: Introduction In terms of administrative fairness, the justice theory seems to vary according to different cultures. The justice seems to be influenced by the individual agreement on the various aspects. There are various theorists like John Rawls, Robert Nozick both who developed several theories on justice such as theories of distributive justice. In this essay, John Rawls Justice as fairness and Robert Nozicks Entitlement justice for theory are illustrated so that the superior theory among these two can be rightfully identified with the help of ample number of justified reasons. Discussion Insofar the background of the justice of fairness is concerned; it seems to be the favorable environment where the basic demands of every citizen can be fulfilled. According to Najafpour, Sara, and Hossein Harsin, the Justice as fairness by John Rawls Indicates that in order to develop a liberal society in both the social and political institutions, it is important to do an arrangement of a proper structure in the legal, political, social, economic systems. With the help of this basic structure, these systems can distribute their benefits and positive impacts among its citizens like their fundamental rights, social recognition, financial benefits etc. The basic structure of the society effectively influences the goals, objectives, characters, attitudes and the prospects of lives of the citizens. As the citizens cannot leave a society, after being unable to cope with the structure, they are forced to live in that particular structure only. The basic concept of the theory of John Rawls suggests that the idea of social cooperation seems to be the combination of both positive and negative aspects. Rawls indicates that to lead a decent life, the individuals need to have proper assistance from their societies. Even there should be a particular technique with which the facilities and benefits will be distributed among them (Rawls, John, page no. 233). The negative idea of this theory mainly includes the fact that no individual is determined to be poor or rich, male or female, born in the favorable racial group etc. Therefore, no individual can get extra facility or disadvantages from the social institutions. On the other hand, the positive idea includes the fact that it is basically an equal reciprocal system where the benefits and facilities are supposed to be distributed among all citizens in appropriate manner. It mainly focuses on the concept that all the citizens are equal fundamentally which ensures the equal distribut ion of all the facilities. The proper justice lies on this idea that the goods, produced in the collective manner need to be distributed among all citizens. Moreover, even if the inequalities happen, that should benefit the demands of the citizens who strongly require them. Based on his discussion of the original position and the value and ignorance, Rawls believes that people will choose two principles to distribute justice. The first principle indicates that every person has the right to claim the appropriate amount of equal rights like other citizens to have an adequate lifestyle. The demand needs to be compatible with the sense of liberty. On the other hand, as per the viewpoint of Rawls, John, the second principle indicates to the two specific conditions such as the economic and social conditions need to be applicable to different official positions so that every employee can get the equal opportunity for further improvement and they need to provide maximum equal benefits to the non-advance society members. Therefore, it can be said that the first principle is typically related to the advantages of the political institution while the second principle is highly connected with the economic system. The first principle includes the priority which seems to decide the distribution of similar facilities among employees and the appropriate value of the liberties related to the political institution. The second principle also has two different parts. The fair distribution of opportunity and equality among all the citizens that gives them opportunities to acquire their desired educational qualification and economic opportunities regardless of their class and status. The second part is the principle of differences with which the distribution of wealth and income are distributed. It regulates the inequalities which work for the benefits of worst offs. By assuring this in the society, Rawls reimburses for the naturally happening inequalities like the born talents. Robert Nozicks Entitlement justice for theory indicates the distribution of private property and justice among ordinary people. There are three constituting principles of this theory. The first principle indicates to the primary acquisition perspectives of the ordinary people. The second principle is about the procedure with which one individual acquires holding from other individual by an exchange of power. The third principle suggests the acquainting power with which one individual tries to adjust in a situation where the holding of power is distributed unjustly. The first principle indicates self-ownership of each person, that every human being is the owner of their own talents, bodies and abilities. Therefore, they also have the right to the produced product or services by their talent. It also indicates at the labor holding seems to be illegitimate because no individual can be owned by other individual. The second principle indicates that it is the responsibility of every individual to protect the basic life, property and liberty without seeking the help of any military force or police. This process can consume huge time and cost. From the viewpoint of Letseka, Moeketsi, in order to reduce the chances for further violation of the rights by the involvement of other individuals, as per this theory, every individual needs to protect their own rights. Robert Nozick argues that the employment of other agencies reduce the effectiveness of this acquiring process. However, Fraser, Colin R opined that the distributive justice method of this theory includes some external forces who seem to be responsible for the distribution of rights among individuals. Their efforts give them the right to claim the shares of the individuals among whom the shares are distributed. According to Robert Nozick, every theory includes a starting points and transformational processes with which the theories embrace whatever result comes out. However, he criticizes that principle generating principle of Rawlss theory does not have the ability to process principles. It only aims to identify end result principle. Robert Nozick criticises that this fact of Rawlss theory seems to be very ironic because it seems great but cannot give a proper justification behind selecting the outcome of its results (Wndisch, Joachim). Robert Nozick also argues against the principle of difference of Rawlss theory in which it is mentioned that no individual is that worse so that it can be controlled by other individual. Robert Nozick rejects this concept but cannot provide any other baseline for it and also does not provide the criteria for the people to be controlled by other. Moreover, for this principle, he also argues that it the social cooperation for the benefit of all members of the society cannot determine the advantages of the less-advanced society members in comparison to their other successful mates. However, based on my argument, these flaws cannot be regarded as the actual backdrops of the theory of Rawls. Insofar as the first principle of this theory is concerned, Robert Nozick also agrees with the fact of liberty which every individual need to get. Robert Nozick also admits the openion of Rawlss theory regarding the redistribution process of wealth by government among individuals. He admits that his theory does not fulfill the criteria of wealth distribution among people. Rather, the difference principle of Rawlss theory helps to increase the possibility of the less advantage receiver people and the previous injustice victims by rectifying the wealth distribution process. However, the previous criticism of Robert Nozick regarding the difference principle is very weak because he rejects this theory but cannot be able to provide another proper view which can prove its insufficiency. For this reason, I think, Rawlss theory already has owned some advantages over the theory of Rob ert Nozick. In addition to that, Rawlss theory tends to increase the success rate of society by increasing the benefits and opportunities of individuals and also tries to maximize the outcomes. Though it has little care about the practical implementation of the human nature, it mainly covers the basic needs and demands of the people and also recommends measure for maximizing the opportunities of the victims of injustice. For this reason, I prefer the justifications of Rawlss theory which clearly elaborates the structure and their effectiveness by illustrating the principles and their sub-parts. Conclusion In this way, both the theories of John Rawlss Justice as fairness and Robert Nozicks Entitlement justice for theory are analyzed critically in order to identify the most effective theory in comparison to the other. The analysis has been done from the perspective of John Rawls which strengthen the fact of equal distribution of power among each and every citizen. This theory mainly promotes the protection of self-ownership of every citizen along with the equal distribution of all available facilities among them. However, the modern scientists needs to work more on strongly establishing the fact of Rawls in which he claims that benefit of all citizen can increase the potentiality of the improvement of non-advanced citizens. Rawls does not prove this fact with proper justification for which the researchers need to provide ample umber of practical examples. Reference List Fraser, Colin R. "John Rawls, Robert Nozick, and the Difference Principle: Finding Common Ground."Inquiries Journal3.04 (2011) Lawrence, Michael Anthony. "'Justice-as-Fairness' as Judicial Guiding Principle: Remembering John Rawls and the Warren Court." (2015) Letseka, Moeketsi. "Ubuntu and justice as fairness."Mediterranean journal of social sciences5.9 (2014): 544 Najafpour, Sara, and Hossein Harsij. "The Impact of Rawls and MacIntyre Theory of Justice on National Cohesion in Multicultural Societies."International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences3.7 (2013): 202 Rawls, John. "Justice as fairness: political not metaphysical."Philosophy Public Affairs(1985): 223-251 Wndisch, Joachim. "Nozicks proviso: Misunderstood and misappropriated."Rationality, Markets and Morals4.79 (2013)